Active medium or active center: Chromium ions act as active centers in ruby crystal. So it is the chromium ions that produce the laser. Pumping source: A helical flash lamp filled with xenon is used as a pumping source. The ruby crystal is placed inside a xenon flash lamp.
What is active center in ruby laser?
The active part of the ruby is the dopant, which consists of chromium ions suspended in a synthetic sapphire crystal. The dopant often comprises around 0.05% of the crystal, and is responsible for all of the absorption and emission of radiation.
Which of the following is used as the active medium for the ruby laser?
The active laser medium (laser gain/amplification medium) is a synthetic ruby rod that is energised through optical pumping (typically by a xenon flashtube). The wavelength of a laser is measured in namometres (nm). Ruby lasers produce pulses of visible light of a deep red colour, at a wavelength of 694.3 nm.
What is the working of ruby laser?
In an active medium (ruby), a process called spontaneous emission produces light. The light produced within the laser medium will bounce back and forth between the two mirrors. This stimulates other electrons to fall into the ground state by releasing light energy. This is called stimulated emission.
What is the output of ruby laser?
Ruby laser has very high output power of the order of 104 – 106 watts. It has wavelength of 6943 Angstroms.
What is not drawback of ruby laser?
Ruby laser requires high power pumping source, whereas Helium-neon laser requires low power pumping source like electric discharge. Efficiency of helium-neon laser is more than ruby laser. The defects due to crystalline imperfections are also present in the ruby laser. But it is not so in the helium-neon laser.
What are the advantages of Ruby Laser?
Benefits or advantages of Ruby Laser
➨They are economical. ➨Beam diameter of ruby laser is comparatively less than CO2 laser type. ➨Output power of ruby laser is not as less as He-Ne laser type. ➨Ruby is in solid form and hence there is no chance of wasting material of the active medium.
What is the difference between he Ne laser and ruby laser?
Ruby laser requires high power pumping source, whereas Helium-neon laser requires low power pumping source like electric discharge. Efficiency of helium-neon laser is more than ruby laser. The defects due to crystalline imperfections are also present in the ruby laser.
What are the drawbacks of ruby laser?
Drawbacks of ruby laser
- As the terminus of laser action is the ground state, it is difficult to maintain the population inversion. …
- The ruby laser requires high power pumping source.
- The laser output is not continuous but occurs in the form of pulses of microsecond duration.
What are three types of lasers?
Types of lasers – Solid state laser, Gas laser, Liquid laser & Semiconductor laser.
What is the basic principle of laser?
A laser emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation that is always monochromatic, collimated and coherent in nature. Lasers consist of three main components: a lasing medium (solid, liquid or gas), a stimulating energy source (pump) and an optical resonator; and have a wide variety of uses in clinical medicine.
What is the function of mirrors in ruby laser?
The mirrors reflect some of this light back and forth inside the ruby crystal, stimulating other excited chromium atoms to produce more red light, until the light pulse builds up to high power and drains the energy stored in the crystal—this produces what we typically think of as “laser light”.
Why chromium is used in ruby laser?
Active medium or active center: Chromium ions act as active centers in ruby crystal. So it is the chromium ions that produce the laser. … The ruby crystal is placed inside a xenon flash lamp. Thus, optical pumping is used to achieve population inversion in ruby laser.
Why do lasers require mirrors?
“laser” is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. … A system of mirrors at both ends of the laser glass amplifier causes the photons to travel back and forth through the glass, stimulating more electrons to drop to their lower energy states and emit laser photons.
Why does ruby laser need cooling?
Explanation: A large amount of energy is dissipated in the ruby rod. Thus, it has to be cooled for efficient continuous operation. For this purpose, liquid nitrogen is used. Explanation: The laser output observed in a Ruby laser is pulsed.
In which application ruby laser can be used?
Although several lasers have been discovered since Maiman’s device, the ruby laser is still used, commonly in high speed photography and pulsed holography, and as a light source for medical and cosmetic procedures.